7 P's of Marketing

What are the 7 Ps of Marketing?

The framework for marketing known as the “7 P’s of Marketing” consists of seven essential elements: the product, price, promotion, place, people, process, and physical proof. A good marketing strategy is the result of the interaction among these factors.


The products or services that a business sells are referred to as the “product” component of the seven Ps of marketing. It’s critical to fully understand a product’s features, advantages, and how it stacks up against those of rivals. In order to have a successful product offering, businesses must also take into account product design, packaging, and branding.


Price includes the cost of the item or service as well as any potential reductions or special offers. Pricing correctly is essential for success because it influences both profitability and the way customers perceive value. When deciding on pricing strategies, businesses must take into account elements including manufacturing costs, competition, and customer demand.


All of the ways a business interacts with clients to market its goods or services are included in the promotion. Advertising, sales promotions, public relations, and personal selling are some examples of this. The purpose of promotion is to raise public knowledge of, interest in, and demand for the good or service, which will subsequently result in higher sales.


Place, usually referred to as a distribution, describes how a business delivers its goods or services to the client. Retail storefronts, e-commerce websites, and direct sales teams are examples of channels that may be used for this. When choosing a distribution plan, businesses must take into account elements like geographic reach, inventory management, and transportation logistics.


People refer to the people who are a part of the marketing process, such as stakeholders, consumers, and workers. In order to provide the ideal customer experience, a business must be aware of the demands and preferences of its target market and make sure that all of its personnel are properly taught and equipped.


The mechanisms and procedures that a business uses to offer its goods or services are referred to as its processes. This covers every aspect, including customer service, inventory management, and order processing. Businesses must make sure that their procedures are productive and efficient while also giving customers a good experience.

Physical Proof

The tangible components that customers use to assess a company’s product or service are referred to as physical proof. This may involve elements like product quality, retail design, and packaging. Companies must make sure that their physical evidence matches customer expectations and is consistent with their brand and marketing statements.

Who Created the 7 Ps Marketing Mix Model?

The 7 Ps marketing mix model was created by E. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. McCarthy, an American marketing professor, proposed the 4 Ps marketing mix model (Product, Price, Place and Promotion) in his book “Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach” in 1960.

The idea behind this model is that businesses should focus on these key factors when developing a marketing strategy. These 4 Ps were originally intended to represent all of the elements needed for successful product marketing, with no consideration given to customer service or branding.

Later, in the 1980s, to accommodate more service-related businesses three additional Ps were added to the model by other marketing theorists to create the 7 Ps marketing mix model that is widely used today. These included Participants (who would later be called “People”), Physical evidence or Physical Proof, and Processes.

Final Thoughts

I hope this article has provided you with an understanding of the 7 Ps of marketing. By grasping these fundamental principles, you will be equipped to make informed decisions about which marketing strategies are best suited for your business and how to effectively implement them.

The 7 Ps are not only about promoting a product or service but also about creating an exceptional customer experience that builds trust and loyalty. It is essential to consider all seven elements when developing your marketing plan to ensure that your business stands out from the competition and resonates with your target audience.

We encourage you to continue exploring the dynamic field of marketing to stay ahead of the curve and grow your business in the ever-changing landscape of modern commerce.